H J Andrews Experimental Forest, Oregon, USA, 1948 -
Location and Scale
44.2 N, 122.2 W, in the central western Cascade Mountains of Oregon, USA, about 80 km east of Eugene.
The main drainage within the H J Andrews Experimental Forest (HJA) is Lookout Creek with 62 km² with a range in elevation from 400-1600 m asl. Lookout Creek is a tributary to the Blue River in the MacKenzie River system. The upper portion of the watershed is divided into three major streams - Lookout Creek, Mack Creek, and McRae Creek. There are 10 monitored subcatchments, two of which lie just outside Lookout Creek.
1948 - present
Climate is Mediterranean with strong contrasts between summer and winter precipitation amounts. The catchment experiences a gradual wet-up period from about October to December and thereafter maintains very high wetness until late spring. Snow accumulations are common, but seldom persist longer than 1–2 weeks and generally melt within 1–2 days. While winters are generally wet and mild, summers are dry and rather cool. The mean annual temperature at 420 m is 8.5 °C ranging from a monthly mean of 0.6 °C in January to 17.8 °C in July. At 1,300 m the values are approximately 2 °C lower. The long-term mean annual precipitation varies from about 2300 mm (lower elevations) to 3550 mm (upper parts). Most of the precipitation (80%) falls between November and April, typically during long-duration frontal storms of low to moderate intensity.
The catchment contains residualand colluvial clay loam soils derived from andesitic tuffs (30%) and coarse breccias (70%) comprising the Little Butte Formation formed as the result of ashfall and pyroclasitic flows from Oligocene-Early Miocene volcanic activity.
Steep slopes on valley sides, with some debris flow deposits. Some tributaries have very narrow channel bottoms, some alluvial deposition in the valley bottom of the Lookout Creek and main tributaries.
Vegetation / Land Use
Most of the forests are within the Tsuga heterophylla zone (sensu Franklin & Dyrness 1973) with large old-growth trees of Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirbel) Franco., Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg., and Thuja plicata Donn. dominating the tree layer. At higher elevations (>1,100 m), forest stands belonging to the Abies amabilis zone occur.
The H J Andrews Experimental Forest was established in 1948 to study the impacts of forestry practices. The first logging experiments were carried out in 1951. The Andrews Forest has been a Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) site since 1980.
Hydrological Knowledge Gained
Research at the Andrews has addressed:
- effects of forest management activities on water yield and sediment transport
- peak flows response
- snowmelt and accumulation processes
- catchment nutrient budgets
- sapflow and evalpotranspiration
- transport and dispersion of solutes and sediments, including the role of channel deposition, hyporheic exchanges and log jams
Allen, S. T.; Brooks, J. R.; Keim, R. F.; Bond, B. J.; McDonnell, J. J. 2014. The role of pre-event canopy storage in throughfall and stemflow by using isotopic tracers. Ecohydrology. 7: 858-868. doi: 10.1002/eco.1408
Anderson, Justin K.; Wondzell, Steven M.; Gooseff, Michael N.; Haggerty, Roy. 2005. Patterns in stream longitudinal profiles and implications for hyporheic exchange flow at the H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest, Oregon, USA. Hydrological Processes. 19: 2931-2949.
Bond, B.J., Jones, J.A., Moore, G., Phillips, N. , Post, D., McDonnell, J.J. 2002. The zone of vegetation influence on baseflow revealed by diel patterns of streamflow and vegetation water use in a headwater basin. Hydrol. Process. 16(8), 1671–1677. DOI: 10.1002/hyp.5022.
Brooks, J. Renée; Barnard, Holly R.; Coulombe, Rob; McDonnell, Jeffrey J. . 2010. Ecohydrologic separation of water between trees and streams in a Mediterranean climate. Nature Geoscience. 3:100-104. doi: 10.1038/ngeo722
Burt, T.,P., Howden, N.J.K., McDonnell, J.J., Jones, J.A., Hancock, J.R. 2015. Seeing the climate through the trees: observing climate and forestry impacts on streamflow using a 60-year record. Hydrol. Process. 29(3), 473–480, DOI: 10.1002/hyp.10406.
Carey, S.K., Tetzlaff, D., Buttle, J., Laudon, H., McDonnell, J., McGuire, K., Seibert, J., Soulsby, C., Shanley, J. 2013. Use of color maps and wavelet coherence to discern seasonal and interannual climate influences on streamflow variability in northern catchments. Water Resour. Res., 49(10), 6194-6207, DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20469.
Choi S.W., Miller, J.C. 2013. Species richness and abundance among macromoths: A comparison of taxonomic, temporal and spatial patterns in Oregon and South Korea. ENTOMOLOGICAL RESEARCH, 43(6), 312-321, DOI: 10.1111/1748-5967.12036.
Creed, Irena F.; Sass, Gabor Z.; Buttle, Jim M.; Jones, Julia A. 2011. Hydrological principles for sustainable management of forest ecosystems. Hydrological Processes. doi:10.1002/hyp.8056.
Czarnomski, Nicole M.; Dreher, David M.; Snyder, Kai U.; Jones, Julia A.; Swanson, Frederick J. 2008. Dynamics of wood in stream networks of the western Cascades Range, Oregon. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 38: 2236-2248.
Faustini, John M.; Jones, Julia A. 2003. Influence of large woody debris on channel morphology and dynamics in steep, boulder-rich mountain streams, western Cascades, Oregon. Geomorphology. 51: 187-205 .
Gabrielli, C.P., McDonnell, J.J. 2012. An inexpensive and portable drill rig for bedrock groundwater studies in headwater catchments. Hydrol. Process. 26(4), 622-632, DOI: 10.1002/hyp.8212.
Gabrielli, C.P. McDonnell, J.J., Jarvis, W.T. 2012. The role of bedrock groundwater in rainfall-runoff response at hillslope and catchment scales. J. Hydrol., 450–451, 117–133, DOI: 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2012.05.023.
Gooseff, Michael N. ; Wondzell, Steve M.; Haggerty, Roy; Anderson, Justin. 2003. Comparing transient storage modeling and residence time distribution (RTD) analysis in geomorphically varied reaches in the Lookout Creek basin, Oregon, USA. Advances in Water Resources. 26: 925-937.
Graham, C.B., McDonnell, J.J. 2010. Hillslope threshold response to rainfall: (2) Development and use of a macroscale model. J. Hydrol. 393(1–2), 77–93, DOI: 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2010.03.008
Graham, C.B., Barnard, H.B., Kavanagh, K.L., McNamara, J.P. 2013. Catchment scale controls the temporal connection of transpiration and diel fluctuations in stream flow. Hydrol. Process. 27(18), 2541-2556, DOI: 10.1002/hyp.9334
Grant, Gordon E.; Harr, R. Dennis; Leavesley, George. 1990. Effects of forest land use on watershed hydrology: a modeling approach. The Northwest Environmental Journal. 6: 414-415.
Greenland, D. 1995. The Pacific Northwest Regional Context Of The Climate of the H. J. Andrews Experimental Forest. NORTHWEST SCIENCE 69(2), 81-96.
Griffiths, R.P., Madritch, M.D., Swanson, A.K. 2009. The effects of topography on forest soil characteristics in the Oregon Cascade Mountains (USA): Implications for the effects of climate change on soil properties. Forest Ecology and Management 257(1), 1–7, DOI: 10.1016/j.foreco.2008.08.010.
Haggerty, Roy; Wondzell, Steven M.; Johnson, Matthew A. 2002. Power-law residence time distribution in the hyporheic zone of a 2nd-order mountain stream. Geophysical Research Letters. 29(13): 18-1 - 18-4.
Hale, V.C., McDonnell, J.J., 2016. Effect of bedrock permeability on stream base flow mean transit time scaling relations: 1. A multiscale catchment intercomparison. Water Resour. Res., 52(2), 1358-1374, DOI: 10.1002/2014WR016124.
Harr, R. D. 1977. Water flux in soil and subsoil on a steep forested slope. Journal of Hydrology. 33: 37-58.
Harr, R. D. 1981. Some characteristics and consequences of snowmelt during rainfall in western Oregon. Journal of Hydrology. 53: 277-304.
Harr, R. Dennis. 1982. Fog drip in the Bull Run Municipal Watershed, Oregon. Water Resources Bulletin. 18(5): 785-789.
Harr, R. Dennis. 1986. Effects of clearcutting on rain-on-snow runoff in western Oregon: a new look at old studies. Water Resources Research. 22(7): 1095-1100.
Harr, R. Dennis; Fredriksen, Richard L. 1988. Water quality after logging small watersheds within the Bull Run Watershed, Oregon. Water Resources Bulletin. 24(5): 1103-1111.
Heaston, E.D., Kaylor, M.J., Warren, D.R., 2017. Characterizing short-term light dynamics in forested headwater streams. Freshwater Science, 36(2), 259-271, DOI: 10.1086/691540. Highland, S.A., Miller, J.C., Jones, J.A., 2013. Determinants of moth diversity and community in a temperate mountain landscape: Vegetation, topography, and seasonality. Ecosphere, 4(10), 129, DOI: 10.1890/ES12-00384.1
Jennings, Keith; Jones, Julia A. . 2015. Precipitation-snowmelt timing and snowmelt augmentation of large peak flow events, western Cascades, Oregon. Water Resources Research. 51: 7649–7661. doi: 10.1002/2014WR016877
Johnson, Sherri L.; Swanson, Frederick J.; Grant, Gordon E.; Wondzell, Steven M. 2000. Riparian forest disturbances by a mountain flood -- the influence of floated wood. Hydrological Processes. 14: 3031-3050.
Jones, J. A. 2000. Hydrologic processes and peak discharge response to forest removal, regrowth, and roads in 10 small experimental basins, western Cascades, Oregon. Water Resources Research. 36(9): 2621-2642.
Jones, J. A.; Grant, G. E. 1996. Peak flow responses to clear-cutting and roads in small and large basins, western Cascades, Oregon. Water Resources Research. 32(4): 959-974.
Jones, Julia A.; Post, David A. 2004. Seasonal and successional streamflow response to forest cutting and regrowth in the northwest and eastern United States. Water Resources Research. 40: W05203, doi: 10.1029/2003WR002952.
Jones, J. A.; Swanson, F. J. 2001. Hydrologic inferences from comparisons among small basin experiments. Hydrological Processes. 15: 2363-2366.
Jones, Julia A.; Swanson, Frederick J.; Wemple, Beverley C.; Snyder, Kai U. 2000. Effects of roads on hydrology, geomorphology, and disturbance patches in stream networks. Conservation Biology. 14(1): 76-85.
Jones, Julia A.; Creed, Irena F.; Hatcher, Kendra L.; Warren, Robert J.; Adams, Mary Beth; Benson, Melinda H.; Boose, Emery; Brown, Warren A.; Campbell, John L.; Covich, Alan; Clow, David W.; Dahm, Clifford N.; Elder, Kelly; Ford, Chelcy R.; Grimm, Nancy B.; Henshaw, Donald L.; Larson, Kelli L.; Miles, Evan S.; Miles, Kathleen M.; Sebestyen, Stephen D.; Spargo, Adam T.; Stone, Asa B.; Vose, James M.; Williams, Mark W. 2012. Ecosystem processes and human influences regulate streamflow response to climate change at Long-Term Ecological Research sites. BioScience. 62(4): 390-404. DOI:10.1525/bio.2012.62.4.10.
Jonsson, B.G. 1996. Riparian bryophytes of the HJ Andrews Experimental Forest in the western Cascades, Oregon. BRYOLOGIST 99(2), 226-235, DOI: 10.2307/3244554.
Kasahara, Tamao; Wondzell, Steven M. 2003 . Geomorphic controls on hyporheic exchange flow in mountain streams. Water Resources Research. 39(1): 1005, doi:10.1029/2002WR001386.
Kennedy, M.C., McKenzie, D., Tague, C., Dugger, A.L., 2017. Balancing uncertainty and complexity to incorporate fire spread in an eco-hydrological model. International Journal of Wildland Fire, 2(8), 706-718, DOI: 10.1071/WF16169.
Liu, M., Rajagopalan, K.Chung, S.H., Jiang, X., Harrison, J., Nergui, T., Guenther, A., Miller, C., Reyes, J., Tague, C., Choate, J., Salathe, E.P., Stoeckle, C.O., Adam, J.C. 2014. What is the importance of climate model bias when projecting the impacts of climate change on land surface processes? BIOGEOSCIENCES, 11(10), 2601-2622, DOI: 10.5194/bg-11-2601-2014.
McGuire, K.J., McDonnell, J.J., Weiler, M., Kendall, C., McGlynn, B.L., Welker, J.M.,Seibert, J. 2005. The role of topography on catchment-scale water residence time. Water Resour. Res., 41, W05002, DOI: 10.1029/2004WR003657.
Moore, G.W., Bond, B.J., Jones, J.A., Phillips, N., Meinzer, F.C. 2004. Structural and compositional controls on transpiration in 40- and 450-year-old riparian forests in western Oregon, USA. Tree Physiology 24(5), 481–491.
Moore, G.W., Jones, J.A. , Bond, B.J. 2011. How soil moisture mediates the influence of transpiration on streamflow at hourly to interannual scales in a forested catchment. Hydrol. Process. 25, 3701 – 3710, DOI: 10.1002/hyp.8095.
Moore, Georgianne W.; Bond, Barbara J.; Jones, Julia A.; Meinzer, Frederick C. 2010. Thermal-dissipation sap flow sensors may not yield consistent sap-flux estimates over multiple years. Trees. 24: 165-174, doi:10.1007/s00468-009-0390-4.
Post, David A.; Jones, Julia A. 2001. Hydrologic regimes of forested, mountainous, headwater basins in New Hampshire, North Carolina, Oregon, and Puerto Rico. Advances in Water Resources. 24: 1195-1210.
Schmadel, Noah M.; Ward, Adam S.; Wondzell, Steven M. 2017. Hydrologic controls on hyporheic exchange in a headwater mountain stream. Water Resources Research. 53(7): 6260-6278. doi: 10.1002/2017WR020576
Seibert, J., McDonnell, J.J. 2010. Land-cover impacts on streamflow: a change-detection modelling approach that incorporates parameter uncertainty. Hydrological Sciences Journal 55(3), 316-332, DOI: 10.1080/02626661003683264.
Takahiro, S., McDonnell, J.J. 2009. A new time-space accounting scheme to predict stream water residence time and hydrograph source components at the watershed scale. Water Resour. Res., 45, W07401, DOI: 10.1029/2008WR007549.
Thompson, S.E., Basu, N.B., Lascurain, J.Jr., Aubeneau, A., Rao, P.S.C. 2011. Relative dominance of hydrologic versus biogeochemical factors on solute export across impact gradients. Water Resour. Res., 47, W00J05, DOI: 10.1029/2010WR009605.
Vaché, K., Breuer, L., Jones, J., Sollins, P., 2015. Catchment-scale modeling of nitrogen dynamics in a temperate forested watershed, Oregon. An interdisciplinary communication strategy. Water (Switzerland), 7(10), 5345-5377, DOI: 10.3390/w7105345.
Ward, Adam S.; Schmadel, Noah M.; Wondzell, Steven M. 2018. Simulation of dynamic expansion, contraction, and connectivity in a mountain stream network. Advances in Water Resources. 114: 64-82. doi: 10.1016/j.advwatres.2018.01.018
Wemple, Beverley C. ; Jones, Julia A. 2003 . Runoff production on forest roads in a steep, mountain catchment. Water Resources Research. 39(8): 1220, doi:10.1029/2002WR001744.
Wemple, Beverley C.; Jones, Julia A.; Grant, Gordon E. 1996. Channel network extension by logging roads in two basins, western Cascades, Oregon. Water Resources Bulletin. 32(6): 1195-1207.
Wemple, Beverley C. ; Swanson, Frederick J.; Jones, Julia A. 2001. Forest roads and geomorphic process interactions, Cascade Range, Oregon. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms. 26: 191-204.
Wondzell, Steven M.; Swanson, Frederick J. 1999. Floods, channel change, and the hyporheic zone. Water Resources Research. 35(2): 555-567.
Wondzell, S.M., Gooseff, M.N., McGlynn, B.L. 2007. Flow velocity and the hydrologic behavior of streams during baseflow. GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS 34(24), L24404, DOI: 10.1029/2007GL031256.
Wondzell, Steven M.; LaNier, Justin; Haggerty, Roy. 2009. Evaluation of alternative groundwater flow models for simulating hyporheic exchange in a small mountain stream. Journal of Hydrology. 364: 142-151.
Wondzell, S.M., Gooseff, M.N., McGlynn, B.L. 2010. An analysis of alternative conceptual models relating hyporheic exchange flow to diel fluctuations in discharge during baseflow recession. Hydrol. Process. 24(6), 686-694, DOI: 10.1002/hyp.7507
Yee, Carlton S.; Harr, R. Dennis. 1977. Influence of soil aggregation on slope stability in the Oregon Coast Ranges. Environmental Geology. 1: 367-377.
H J Andrews Experimental Forest site where a full list of publications can be found.