McMahon et al. (2016) Historical development of models for estimating evaporation

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T. A. McMahon, B. L. Finlayson and M. C. Peel (2016) Historical developments of models for estimating evaporation using standard meteorological data, WIREs Water 2016. doi: 10.1002/wat2.1172


Reviews the development of methods for estimating terrestrial evaporation, from classical times to the early experiments of Halley and Perrault in the 17th Century, and Dalton's statement of a mass transfer equation in 1802. In 1921 Cummings proposed an approximate energy balance method, later combined with a mass transfer equation by Penman in 1948 making use of the Bowen ratio first published in 1926. Monteith later extended the Penman equation to predict canopy evaporation in 1965. Other approaches covered include the Priestly-Taylor equation (1972) based on the energy term of Penman's equation, and the complementary relationship approach of Brutsaert-Stricker and Morton. The contributions of Budyko are also discussed , both in developing a potential evaporation equation, and in estimating the runoff component of the water balance, which then allows a long term average of actual evaporation to be estimated. Provides an extensive Table of all the major contributions to estimating different types of evaporation.


Budyko curve,


paper at WIRES Water